Saturday, May 23, 2020

Descriptive And Predictive Analytics Tools - 1694 Words

In this literature, we discussed a good number of the tools and studies that utilize EHR data in order to improve the quality of care particularly for patients suffering from kidney related diseases. The chapter 4 of this study includes the descriptive and predictive analytics tools that uses data mining methods to predict the presence of kidney disease and analyze the relationships among different risk factors (described in chapter 2). Then, the next chapter provides an overview of the EHR-based interactive visualization tools that have been developed to explore patterns and gain insights into the clinical records. The visualization tools also help the clinicians to make decisions regarding the risks and benefits of treatments and medications. Finally, chapter 6 provides a comprehensive survey of the clinical e-alert tools that have been developed to identify, monitor, and notify the episodes of kidney injury among the hospitalized patients. In this chapter, we provide a comparative analysis of all the tools and studies mentioned in the last three chapters. The overall goal of all of these tools is to improve the quality of care by using the resources in EHR. However, different types of tools described in this study have achieved it in different ways (e.g., data mining or information visualization). In the next three section, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these three types of tools based on the activity framework, cognitive load distribution, and type of theShow MoreRelatedChapter 17 : A Theme Park1337 Words   |  6 PagesChapter 17 is essentially all about â€Å"Business Analytics†, and what it comprises of are, are six specific segments. This chapter opens up with a brief story about a theme park, named WaldoLands. The theme park uses the characters from the Waldowood stories as their mainstay theme as well as overall design. However, a note of interest is that in their last major tourist season, they encountered issues like the breakdowns of rides, and poor customer service with respect to taking too much time to serveRead MorePrescriptive Analysis : Moving Beyond Predictive Analysis Essay1196 Words   |  5 PagesPrescriptive Analysis – Moving beyond Predictive Analysis Big Data is becoming more meaningful with the ever more powerful data technologies, which enable us to derive insights from the data and help us make decisions. Big Data also creates new courses and professional fields such as the data science and data scientist, which are aimed at analyzing the ever growing volume of data. Some might think this exaggerated because data analysis, after all, not a new invention. However, we might all agreeRead MoreThe Three Levels Of Analytics, Descriptive, Predictive, And Prescriptive1707 Words   |  7 Pageslevels of Analytics (Descriptive, Predictive, and Prescriptive). Give a brief example of how they might be used to solve business decisions. Descriptive: Descriptive Analytics, probably the most common type of analytics, is the process of describing and evaluating the historical data and recognizing patterns from samples. It serves as a foundation for more advanced analytics. An example of Descriptive Analytics would be discovering and reporting trends. Predictive: Predictive analytics uses dataRead MoreEssay On Business Analytics876 Words   |  4 PagesApplication of Business Analytics An increasing amount of businesses are exploring this new concept of analytics. In today’s tech-savvy era, the use of analytics can be seen as a necessity rather than a competitive advantage. More companies are realizing the benefits that come with the use of analytics within the business environment. Like anything else, there are both pros and cons that come with this approach. However, the benefits far outweigh the negatives. Business analytics are the future of theRead MoreDefine And Describe The Three Analytics Types Essay1515 Words   |  7 Pages1. Define and describe the three analytics types. a. Descriptive Analytics. This type of business analytics is to answer the question â€Å"what is happening† and â€Å"why did it happen?†. The process of descriptive analytics is looking at past performance and understanding this performance. Data mining, data aggregation, segmentation, profiling are some tools that can be used to perform the descriptive analytics. The output of this analytics, for example, is the age range of bank customers, the income distributionRead MoreBusiness Intelligence And Marketing Analytics Essay1321 Words   |  6 PagesBlogs / job portals / special interest groups take on BI and BA Business intelligence and business analytics†¦ aren’t they the same thing?Or are they describing opposite processes?There are a lot of big words that get thrown around in the world of BI, and it’s easy to get lost in a whirlwind of interpretation.The diversity of opinion reflects the fluidity of how we understand the defining language of the field.It also demonstrates that in business intelligence, one term can mean different things toRead MoreLong Distance Information Delivery1695 Words   |  7 Pagespermanent paradigm shift in the way we communicate. But the biggest challenge for market participants that seek to glean actionable information from social media is filtering through the â€Å"noise†. This report explores how Big Data analytics offer a new generation of tools for financial services participants in their search to decipher social media’s chatter. One Friday in late March of 2015, just before the stock market close, an options trader made what may may have been his or her best trade of theRead MoreBig Data And Analytics Analysis1316 Words   |  6 Pages BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS: The emergence of new technologies, applications and network systems makes it hard to run the current business models and huge data types, and thus emerged various types of analytic tools like Big Data, which make this work easier by way of proper organization of data. Big Data is all about analyzing different forms of data (Structured, Semi-structured and Un-structured) and it is not about the procedure, creation or consumption of data. Definition of BigRead MoreEssay On Data Analytics1131 Words   |  5 PagesData Analytics: After the mainstreaming of internet almost two decades ago, data analytics has become the next biggest game changing opportunity for everyone. Organizations started to feel the pressure when, huge volumes of data were brought into the picture, the complexity of the data, the rapidly changing customer demands, and the increased competitive pressure put forth by the industries. A massive complex environment has been created by the huge chunks of data and its reach. The explosion ofRead MoreData Analytics And Analysis : Data Science1619 Words   |  7 PagesData analytics and analysis are often used in conjunction with one another, and can be applied in variety of situations, enterprises, and domains. Data analytics and analysis often fall under the umbrella of data science, which is the discipline associated with structured and unstructured data [1]. However, there are altering views of what each term represents, as well as how they are interrelated. One source describes analytics as a subset of analysis, with analysis being the larger entity [2].

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Dictionary States That Fracking Is A Method Used For

The dictionary states that fracking is a method used for getting oil and gas from underground rocks by injecting liquid into the rocks so that they can break apart (Merriam-Webster). Fracking can be a controversial topic in numerous people’s eyes due to the side effects that coincide with this procedure. Fracking has evolved over the years and made a comeback around 2010. Lately, the United States has heard tremendous news regarding this procedure and the drawbacks from fracking natural gases and oil. Fracking can be beneficial; sadly, the side effects greatly outweigh the benefits. The environmental risks, pollution, and the overall risk factors prove to not worth the risk of fracking. Fracking is a†¦show more content†¦The environmental risks that accompany fracking are potentially hazardous. In order to frack, thousands of acres of forests need destroyed to allow roadways the space they need to exist (Lampe 38). However, these roadways allow erosion to occur due to the lack of vegetation (Lampe 38). Along with erosion, siltation occurs and sand, soil, and mud sink to the bottom of rivers, and ponds (Lampe 38). Therefore, the animals living in these habitats may migrate, or simply just die. Trees situated on the acres of land for hundreds of years would have to be chopped down to make way for roadways. In some cases, depending on where the oil reservoir is located, the state declares eminent domain on houses and pays the landowners. Consequently, the houses will be destroyed and the oil reservoirs will be fracked. The greatest common concern on the subject today is water contamination. Individuals grew worried that the chemicals used to gather these natural resources will seep into the water and contaminate the United States. The water necessary to frack is gathered from rivers, lakes, ponds, and even aquifers. This is then combined with chemicals and pumped into the ground. Fracking was exempted from the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act and the chemicals used to frack are not tested frequently in our water (Lampe 34). Bordering on 20 to 40 percent of the water used to frack rises back up to the surface and is stored on site (Lampe 34). AnShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Climate Change On Fossil Fuels1431 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.† (Google Dictionary ). Due to our dependence on fossil fuels as our main source for energy and our carbon dioxide emissions over decades, climate change has rapidly emerged on Earth. Yet, we still have those who deny any scientific evidence of the effect of the dependenceRead MoreHydraulic Fracking Essay15746 Words   |  63 PagesHydraulic Fracturing (â€Å"Fracking†) LAS 432 – Technology, Society, and Culture Team B Michael Griffin Mark Hartwick Alena Hutson Kansas Gentry Kevin Gracia Professor Douglas McCoy 8/24/12 Contents Thesis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Page 3 Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Page 3 Hydraulic Fracturing Description†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Page 4 History of Fracking.....................†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..Page 5 Cultural Context†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦PageRead MoreRenewable Resources And Natural Resources2610 Words   |  11 Pagesimproving the American economy. Wind also has enormous potential. It could possible generate 20 times more than what the human population needs at full capacity. Because turbines must be spread apart, the spaces of land in-between the turbines can be used for other things, unlike the bulky, close together rows of solar panels needed to harness solar energy. Due to better technology and advances in the field prices of turbines have significantly decreased (80% since 1980). While wind energy has many

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Why Year Round School Is More Harm Than Good - 978 Words

Children Need Summer Break Students look forward to getting out of school for summer. They count down the last few days until the bell rings on that last day and they are out for summer break. They get so excited to be able to go on vacations, spend more time reading, visiting family, and of course, sleeping in. Children also look forward to going back to school after summer break. They are so excited for the first day of class that they have to get all new school supplies. They wake up extra early and are ready to learn on that first day. If school was all year round, I believe students would never look forward to school and would affect their learning. Therefore, in my opinion, I do not believe school should be year round. Why Year Round School Is More Harm Than Good Year round schooling is a topic that is emerging widely throughout the United States in this day and time. It is said that it is suppose to better the school systems and help students with their schoolwork. However, I think year round schooling could do more harm than good to students, families, as well as teachers. A few ways that it could be more harm than good are that the school would have to spend more money to keep the school running, not enough vacation time, and conflicts with the teachers and administrators. With year-round school, the budget will go up with the cost to provide food, utilities, and other things that are provided for the students. In order for the school to stay up andShow MoreRelatedWhat is Wrong with Year-Round School?865 Words   |  4 PagesYear-round education Its mid June and students are anxious and have been long waiting for summer break. After about 10 months of hard work students should have the next 2 months to themselves. Over 3,000 schools in the country have made the switch to this new schedule. But is it really the right change? No, Schools should not change to this new schedule. With this change comes a rise in cost, difficult situations, stress and many other complications that would not be present with the traditionalRead MoreWhat Makes The Monsanto Company Didn t Start Off As An Agricultural Company?1469 Words   |  6 Pagesepidemic of obesity which later leads to heart disease problems. Furthermore heart disease is one of the leading cause of deaths in the U.S. Food companies see it in their best interest to genetically modify food, but fail to realize there are causing harm to human health and the environment. There needs to be a regulation change in what food we are provided with. Genetically Modified foods are everywhere today in the U.S. The master mind behind this is the Monsanto company. Interesting thingRead MoreThe Importance Of Vaccinating Children1237 Words   |  5 Pagesvaccinating children is beneficial or detrimental. There are also restrictions put in place by the government that encourage vaccines, such as children must have vaccinations to attend public school. However, if these required vaccinations cause the child to get sick or develop health problems, they cannot attend school. Factors such as public education requiring vaccinations may pressure parents into getting their child fully vaccinated, even if they do not agree with it. There is a large argument againstRead MoreArgumentative Argument For Vaccinations1238 Words   |  5 Pagesvaccinating children is beneficial or detrimental. There are also restrictions put in place by the government that encourage vaccines, such as children must have vaccinations to attend public schoo l. However, if these required vaccinations cause the child to develop sickness or other health problems, they cannot attend school. Factors such as public education requiring vaccinations may pressure parents into getting their child fully vaccinated, even if they do not agree with it. There is a large argument againstRead MoreModern Government vs. Second Amendment694 Words   |  3 PagesStates a safer home for its citizens? Due to random shootings and gun related massacres that have occurred in public places such as schools, many people believe so (Richman). Although this is a major problem that needs to be dealt with, artilleries are commonly used by law-abiding citizens just as much as felons. In fact, there are about 100,000 defensive gun uses every year (Huemer 47). Many people refer to the Second Amendment when arguing about gun control laws including radio host, Lars Larson, whoRead MoreAnalysis Of The My Lai Massacre1549 Words   |  7 Pageshe said, ‘I did thatâ₠¬â„¢. These acts shows the fragility of human nature and how both parties became something less than they were that day. Initially, the United States government had tried to cover up this sadistic genocide by silencing the soldiers who attempted to stop the killings. These particular men were shunned and seen as traitors to the United States government up until 10 years ago when they were finally given recognition for their actions that day. While these pacifists had the truth toRead MoreThe Human Papillomavirus ( Hpv )1266 Words   |  6 PagesThe Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States with about 14 million cases each year. There are two different types of HPV: low-risk and high-risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), â€Å"more than 90 percent and 80 percent, respectively, of sexually active men and women will be infected with at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. Around one-half of these infectionsRead MoreGun Control in the United States Essay1361 Words   |  6 Pagesfor many years now. People have access to many weapons just as easy as the US Military does. The people of the US can both go to a gun store and buy a weapon at the age of sixteen, or they can make a deal with anyone in the streets of the US. Because of the accessibility to weapons, Americans can cause collateral damage in the neighborhood they live in. They can also commit robbery, or go anywhere and start shooting. One problem that happened on April 9, 2014 is that a male sixteen-year-old studentRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1453 Words   |  6 Pagesrelated to gun control measures. Although public polling is still widely used to gauge the public opinion, the polls are usually done at critical awareness times such as just after an incident, which can skew the results and may show higher support than really exists. The statistics can be a bit skewed though as they are usually polled after a mass shooting when public emotion is at its highest. There is debate on whither this is the true public opinion or if it is emotionally driven from the shockRead MoreShould the Government Ban Assault Weapons?967 Words   |  4 Pagesunnerving annihilations of the innocent. There is no specific target, no explicitly sought-out group, nor definite individual. From a classroom of first-graders, to a crowded movie theatre, to a U.S. Naval yard, the location seems at most, random, other than that it is almost always a public place. The perpetrators responsible for these horrific murders also vary, and often surprise those who thought they knew them. However, while the occurrences of mass shootings are unpredictable and always shocking

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Implication Of Homemaking Beyond Home - 939 Words

5. Implication of homemaking beyond home These situated performances of homemaking beyond home confirm how cultural and more-than-human approaches to home can inform the ‘layers of interactions’ (Gibbs, 2009) that continuously rationalize immigrants’ living in a city and reconfigure urban Sydney. Central conclusion is that newly settled migrants’ homemaking in Sydney does not end with securing a roof over a family’s head, rather it is networked and processual – both materially and metaphorically extending beyond home. Imaginaries of belonging, as sense of an immigrant’s home, are not tied to the confinement of a dwelling site; rather urban liveability and production of a meaningful home involve social-cultural associations and economic attachments forged in and through more-than-human relations across the settlement spectrum. Therefore, any housing supply, especially if it is targeted to young immigrants should offer multi-scalar opportunities that are streamlined to match imm igrants’ material and cultural demands. Young immigrants’ homemaking blurs the boundary between private and public through associations with the more-than-human others. These associations positively reconfigure women’s role at home and outside as these non-humans liberated female immigrants from the confinement of homes. Compared to their devalued and unvalued domestic labour earlier in their countries of origin, now they are economically active involving themselves in homemade food supply, homeShow MoreRelatedSocial Studies Csec Study Guide10262 Words   |  42 Pagesor other assistance. For example, a government might provide: †¢ welfare payments to help meet basic needs †¢ facilities, such as day nurseries to help working mothers †¢ feeding programmes †¢ counselling programmes †¢ foster homes or foster care for children who cannot live at home or who have lost their parents †¢ care services for people who are old or incapacitated and for those who have mental health issues or physical disabilities. KEY POINTS 1 A family produces new members for a society. 2 A familyRead MoreGender and Advertising7641 Words   |  31 Pagesfamily structure toward the end of the 20th century (U.S. Depart-ment of Labor, 2000), and that trend continues today. Internationally, the story is similar. It is estimated that worldwide about 70% of all working-age women now work outside of the home (Witel-Daugenti, 2011). Women make up the majority of professional workers in many countries, even in the Mediterranean, where women have traditionally held more menial jobs. In Spain, for example, the propor-tion of young women in the labor forceRead MoreFeminine Mystique12173 Words   |  49 Pagesgardening, pickling, canning, being very social with my neighbors, joining committees, running PTA teas. I can do it all, and I like it, but it doesn t leave you anything to think about — any feeling of who you are. ... I love the kids and Bob and my home. There s no problem you can even put a name to. But I m desperate. I begin to feel I have no personality. I m a server of food and putter-on of pants and a bed maker, somebody who can be called on when you want something. But who am I? A similarRead MoreImpact of Emerging Markets on Marketing15122 Words   |  61 PagesIn the third part, I discuss how we will need to rethink marketing theory, strategy, policy, and practice in light of the unique nature of emerging markets. I also offer several propositions for further research. In the final section, I provide implications for marketing practice, function, and research. Growth of Emerging Markets A major recent context is the growth of emerging markets (Gu, Hung, and Tse 2008; Hitt et al. 2000; Hoskisson et. al., 2000). It is estimated that by 2035, the grossRead MoreEssay about Gendered Media9688 Words   |  39 Pagesbecause fewer than 10% live beyond 35. Those who do, like their younger and male counterparts, are nearly all white and heterosexual. In addition to being young, the majority of women are beautiful, very thin, passive, and primarily concerned with relationships and getting rings out of collars and commodes. There are a few bad, bitchy women, and they are not so pretty, not so subordinate, and not so caring as the good women. Most of the bad ones work outside of the home, which is probably why theyRead MoreMulticultural Education in a Pluralistic Society21691 Words   |  87 Pagesmeasure. These five determinants of SES are interrelated. Although inequality has many forms, these factors are probably the most salient for an individual because they affect how on e lives. A family’s SES is usually observable—in the size of their home and the part of town in which they live, the schools their children attend, or the clubs to which the parents belong. Many educators place their students at specific SES levels on the basis of similar observations about their families, based on theRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesEmployee Rights 7 Motivating Knowledge Workers 7 Paying Employees Market Value 8 Communications 8 Decentralized Work Sites 8 Skill Levels 8 A Legal Concern 8 Employee Involvement 20 How Organizations Involve Employees 20 Employee Involvement Implications for HRM 20 Other HRM Challenges 21 Recession 21 Off Shoring 21 Mergers 22 A Look at Ethics 22 Summary 23 Demonstrating Comprehension: Questions for Review 24 Key Terms 24 HRM Workshop 25 Linking Concepts to Practice: Discussion Questions 25 DevelopingRead MoreMarketing Mix of Haeir18481 Words   |  74 Pagesmanufacturers across Industry. But the company which would introduce innovative product, with unique technology and provide convenience by satisfying them with something new would surely attract customers. Haier Appliances which is one of the largest Home Appliances brand in the world. Haier is known worldwide for â€Å"inspiring the living† of customers with the unique and patented product like Bottom Mounted Refrigerators. The company was established in 1984, and in only 23 years, it has attained globalRead MoreSda Manual Essay101191 Words   |  405 Pagesthe Board .................................................................... Committees of the Board .......................................................... School Board Meetings ................................................................. Home and School Association ....................................................... Notes ............................................................................................. Form of Service ....................................................

Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria Free Essays

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 0BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO THE STUDY The study of profits is important not only because of the information it provides about the health of the economy in any given year, but also because profits are a key determinant of growth and employment in the medium-term. Changes in profitability are an important contributor to economic progress via the influence profits have on the investment and savings decisions of companies. We will write a custom essay sample on Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is because a rise in profits improves the cash flow position of companies and offers greater flexibility in the source of finance for corporate investment (i. . through retained earnings). Easier access to finance facilitates greater investment which boosts productivity, productive capacity, competitiveness and employment. The existence, growth and survival of a business organization mostly depend upon the profit which an organization is able to earn. It is true that when Profitability increases the value of shareholders may increase to considerable extent. The term profitability refers to the ability of the business organization to maintain its profit year after year. The profitability of the organization will definitely contribute to the economic development of the nation by way of providing additional employment and tax revenue to government exchequer. Moreover, it will contribute the income of the investors by having a higher dividend and thereby improve the standard of living of the people. In order for a business entity (whether public or privately owned) to continue to prosper, there is need for its earnings to be relatively stable for its expansion and growth over time. In addition to its level of earnings, its external environment must also be carefully understood and reliably anticipated (Burns and Mitchell, 1946). Earnings and business environments are so serious issues that a business must study and understand in order to face its opportunities and threats with vigor and determination. Where for instance, the business does not recognize the effects of changes in external environment which may necessitate changes in business earnings, it may suffer some losses consequently. This perhaps explains why there has been continuing search by modern businesses to improve their methods of production necessary to cut down costs, and to develop new attributes or products, which may have wider appeal and satisfaction to their customers. On the other hand, the environmental and cyclical conditions are usually volatile and Dynamic (Sabo, 2003). This underscores the need for business firms to be able to reliably conduct forecast not only for their future demands or sales for their goods and services but also other variables that affect them directly such as their personnel and future profits. The volatility of the changes in the variables from the external environment in specific ways to the immediate factory level and to the remote industry and task environments can sometimes be very significant. These calls for managers’ ability to appreciate and apply formal forecasting techniques to assist their banks achieve this veritable task. The determinants of profitability are empirically well explored although the definition of profitability varies among studies. Disregarding the profitability measures, most of the banking studies have noticed that the capital ratio, loan-loss provisions and expense control are important drivers of high profitability. In this study, the drivers that would be considered are in two categories namely endogenous (internal) and exogenous (external) drivers or factors of Profitability. Internal drivers of bank performance or profitability can be defined as factors that are influenced by a bank’s management decisions. Such management effects will definitely affect the operating results of banks. Although a quality management leads to a good bank performance, it is difficult, if not impossible, to assess management quality directly. In fact, it is implicitly assumed that such a quality will be reflected in the operating performance. As such, it is not uncommon to examine a bank’s performance in terms of those financial variables found in financial statements, such as the balance sheet and income statement (Krakah and Ameyaw, 2010). External determinants of bank profitability are factors that are beyond the control of a bank‘s management. They represent events outside the influence of the bank. However, the management can anticipate changes in the external environment and try to position the institution to take advantage of anticipated developments. The two major components of the external determinants are macroeconomic factors and financial structure factors (Krakah and Ameyaw, 2010). In summary, it appears previous empirical research has suggested a possible connection between bank profitability and various internal and external determinants like Bank Assets, Loan-Loss Provisions, Total Deposit and Inflation, but is far from definitive as ifferent authors have made use of the inclusion and exclusion of different variables in their studies. Hence, our study will try to shed more light on this controversial issue by reviewing more empirical literatures on opposing sides of the topic and finally drawing conclusions from our findings from the mode of data analysis we intend to carry out. 1. 1STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM The Federal Government of Nigeria and the Central B ank of Nigeria (CBN) have perennially sought permanent measures that would enhance the profitability and stability of banks operating in the Nigerian banking industry. Unfortunately, they have never completely succeeded in achieving this feat. For instance, from 1987 – 1991 financial sector reforms (intended to enhance competition in the sector, mobilize savings and lead to a more efficient allocation of resources) were implemented, encompassing elements of liberalization (such as the decontrolling of interest rates) and measures to enhance prudential regulation and tackle bank distress (Oluranti, 1991). Also, between 1990 and 2004, bank regulators increased the minimum share capital requirement for banks operating in Nigeria five times, namely in 1991, 1997, 2000, 2001 and 2004 (Aburime and Uche, 2006). However, these measures were unsuccessful in curtailing the spate of bank distress and failures in the1990s and beyond (Oluranti, 1991; Beck et al. , 2005 and Brownbridge, 2005). Currently, a set of banking sector reforms have also been introduced to ensure inter alia a strong and reliable banking sector (Okagbue and Aliko, 2005). Unfortunately, if the historical antecedents of financial sector reforms in Nigeria are anything to go by, the current reforms may also not help to improve bank profitability and stability in Nigeria. Another major factor, which has often not been given appropriate attention, is the issue of strategic planning through forecasting and prediction of future performance indices of commercial banks (deposit money banks). To achieve this task, a bank must recognize and anticipate the important Variable affecting its profit determination. The works of Stevens (1999), Blyther (2000) and Naceur (2003) established the inability of the business firms to adequately anticipate and forecast several operating variables in them as a very critical factor in explaining their non-performance. They argued that it is dangerous for a firm to fail to anticipate its cash flow sales, profits and production under whatever situation it finds itself. Given the efforts stated above banks need to appreciate the role of other indicators in enhancing the profitability or performance for that matter. Indeed examining the determinants of corporate profits in the banking sector in Nigeria is crucial, if these banks are going to remain competitive, efficient, and viable taking into cognizance the challenges that befall competition in the industry. 1. 2RESEARCH QUESTIONS The motivation behind this study stems from the fact that in the past decade or so, a lot of tremendeous changes has been witnessed in the Nigerian banking industry thereby leading to a number of reforms that has seen players in the banking industry transform from one level to another. Hence, this study will sought to answer the following research questions: 1. Is there a long run and short run relationship between bank profitability and its determinants? 2. To  what  extent  are  discrepancies  in  First Bank’s  profitability  due  to  variations in endogenous factors  Ã‚  under  Ã‚  the  Ã‚  control  Ã‚  of  Ã‚  bank  Ã‚  management as well as exogeneous factors under the control of the macroeconomy? 3. Given previous empirical studies on this topic, can it be deduced that First of Nigeria actually makes sustainable profits in the last three decades? . 3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The sole objective of this study is to provide a framework to investigate the factors or indicators intrinsic in the bank’s asset structure that had impacted on their profitability, and performance for that matter, and make policy recommendation that could be used by bank managers in their policy decisions in the future. Specifically the study s eeks to achieve the following Objectives: 1. Examine  the  profitability  of  First  Bank Nigeria Plc during  the  last  three  decades. 2. Study  Ã‚  the  Ã‚  key  Ã‚  endogenous or company-level  value  Ã‚  drivers  Ã‚  of  Ã‚  performance  Ã‚  or profitability  Ã‚  of  Ã‚  the commercial  bank  in  Nigeria using FBN Plc 3. Study  Ã‚  the  Ã‚  key  Ã‚  exogenous  or macroeconomicvalue  Ã‚  drivers  Ã‚  of  Ã‚  performanceor profitability  Ã‚  of  Ã‚  the commercial  bank  in  Nigeria using FBN Plc 4. To find out if any long-run or short-run relationship exists between Profitability variables and its determinants using FBN Plc. 5. Make  policy  recommendations  regarding  the  key  drivers  of  profitability  at First Bank of Nigeria as well as other commercial  banks  in the country based on  the empirical  findings. 1. 4SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Given the relation between the well-being of the banking sector and the growth of the economy (Rajan and Zingales, 1998; Levine, 1998), knowledge of the underlying factors that influence the financial sector’s profitability is therefore essential not only for the managers of the banks, but also for numerous stakeholders such as the central banks, bankers associations, governments, and other financial authorities. Knowledge of these factors would be useful in helping the regulatory authorities and bank managers formulate future policies aimed at improving the profitability of the Nigerian banking sector. Furthermore, at the present time, the type of analysis to be employed in this study is completely missing in the literature concerning profitability in the banking sector in Nigeria. 1. 5SCOPE OF THE STUDY Even though there is an existence of numerous empirical studies on the determinants of corporate profitability in the banking sector almost none exists regarding banks case studies in Nigeria, with one exception though in a study by Krakah and Ameyaw (2010) who found a significant correlations between Bank’s Financial Statement and Macroeconomic variables with Profitability given case studies of two banks in Ghana. However, since their study relied more on a cross-sectional approaches from two different banks, this study collects a broad array of profitability determinant indicators, specifically, using data solely from First Bank of Nigeria from 1980 to 2010, we will be examining different measures and linkages of endogenous and exogenous variables like total  assets, interest  income, total  overhead expenses, money  supply, annual  inflation  rate and Return on Assets (ROA). Furthermore, since the determinants of profitability are a complex and multi-faceted concept, as such no single measure will capture all aspects of the internal and external determinants in the Financial Statements of First Bank to be used in this study. 1. 6PLAN OF THE STUDY For the purpose of simplification and clarification, this study will be drafted in the following manner: Chapter one will begin with a brief introduction on the topic of our study assessing a few opinions on what some authors have to say relating to the topic of our study. This chapter continues by analyzing some of the problems in the Nigerian economy as it relates to the banking industry as a catalyst for economic growth, then followed by the research questions. The statement of objectives to the study follows afterwards then the significance of the study comes next. An historical overview detailing various facets of developments in the Nigerian banking industry from pre-independence to date is also examined in this chapter. This chapter will be concluded by giving the scope of study. Chapter two of this study, which is the Literature Review and Theoretical Framework, will begin with a brief introduction of what the chapter aims to achieve and how it will be structured. This will be followed by stating various theoretical frameworks to be used in the study. Furthermore, an empirical review of related literatures on the determinants of banking industry profitability as seen by different authors who have written widely on the topic published their findings on this issue would be discussed. This chapter continues by reviewing the Nigerian banking industry performance over the year with a comparative analysis of all the major banks making up the industry. This will be achieved through the use of charts and graphs. Finally, this chapter will be rounded-off by the historical existence of First Bank of Nigeria Plc as well as the corporate profile of the bank. Chapter three, which is the research methodology chapter of this study, will also begin with a brief introduction to the chapter. This will be followed by the method of data collection section as well as method of data analysis section where we will explain the various methods of analysis like Multiple Correlation Matrix, Cointegration Regression Model as well as the Error Correction Mechanism of time series econometric analysis intended to analyze our data is explained. Also in this chapter, we shall state the various regression models to be estimated for this study as well as an explanation of the justification of the variables to be included in the model. This chapter will also explain the how the data gotten for this study will be formatted in Ratio forms to suit need of our intentions for this study. In addition, the statement of hypothesis and assumptions behind our model will be stated in this chapter and the various reasons behind the sampling procedure of arriving at FBN Plc for this study will be explained. Finally, this chapter will be concluded by explaining ‘A Priori’ Expectations of each variable within the model and the yardsticks in econometric measurement to be used in acceptance or rejection of the various hypothesis stated for this study. Chapter four, which is the data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation chapter, will be introduced stating what should be expected as the chapter moves from section to section. Here, the data used for this study will be presented in a tabular format then followed by the analysis and estimation of the explicit model already stated in chapter three of this study. Finally, this chapter is concluded by interpreting the models estimated via different methods of econometric analysis. Chapter five is the Summary, Policy Recommendations and Conclusion chapter of this study. This chapter, like the previous ones before it also begins with an introduction of what to expect, this is followed by a summary of our study thus far. Hence, policy recommendations would be made under a different section and finally, the conclusions of our finding on the study as it relates to the analysis made in chapter four of the study would be highlighted in this study. How to cite Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria, Essay examples

Hotel Environmental Marketing Strategy †

Question: Discuss about the Hotel Environmental Marketing Strategy. Answer: Introduction The hotel and hospitality industry is one of the most flourishing industries in todays world. This industry requires effective service management and efficient customer services, in order to ensure the success of this industry. This assignment highlights the background of Hilton Hotel. The Hilton hotel and resorts is one of the global brands of full-service hotels and resorts that have been catering to the needs of the customers for years. The company was founded in the year 1919. Headquartered in Virginia, US, the hotels and resorts operate with more than 570 hotels worldwide. This assignment highlights the background of the company Hotel Hilton, along with highlighting the various services management issues that occur in the business organization. The various service management issues that occur in the hotel have been highlighted, along with summarising the issues and findings. Recommendations have been provided, for the enhancement of the service management, such that the customer s services provided to the guests and customers are of high quality. The recommendations should be directed towards the improvement of the service strategies. Finally, conclusion should be added in order to summarise the issues and recommendations. Hilton Sydney Hotel is situated in the heart of the city. It is known for its huge hotel accommodation, large guest rooms, and spacious suits. It has at least 28 conference rooms and hence scores high in a corporate destination. The meeting space is about 400 square carpet areas which can cater 1200 delegates. The meetings rooms are further subdivided on the basis of level 1, level 2, level 3, level 4 and other staging connections. The guest rooms are decorated with king size bed along with blackout blinds. The rooms are also equipped with LED TV, alarm clock, MP3 players and wireless internet connectivity. It is also fitted with a glass top work desk. The classification of the guest rooms occur on the basis of guest room, guest room plus, deluxe room, deluxe plus, executive, relaxation room relaxation suit and junior king size suit, master suit and king suit. The hotel is located near the Sydney Harbour Beach, Darling Harbour and Bondi Beach and has excellent connectivity to the ent ire major tourist destination in Sydney. The hotel offers several cuisine options in the form of glass breakfast, glass brasserie, zeta bar, marbel bar and caffe cino. The glass wine bar is brimmed with 440 boutique wines and is poen from 12pm till late in mid night. The timings of the wine bar are extended during the weekends. The hotel also takes care of the relaxation regime of its delegates via bestowing them with health and beauty treatments like Livingwell Hilton Health Club, Alysium Spa, Pierre Haddad. Livingwell Hilton Heath Club provides goodness of health via providing interactive Precor cardio equipment. It also provides options for Zumba, spin, Yoga and Pilates. It also has 25 meter stretch swimming pool steam rooms. Hilton Sydney hotel also provides special packages for honeymoon couple and other surprising gift vouchers for birthday and anniversaries (Hilton Sydney 2017). Service Issues of the Hotel from Key Findings With the growing intensity of competition in the hotel and hospitality industry, there are several issues that are compromising upon the issues related service quality. All the major large scale Hotel industries of Australia like Hamilton Sydney have to encounter loss of revenue due to the increase in the level of Competition and entry of new service providers. The inability of the hotel to modify their marketing strategies and service quality has hugely compromised upon the quality of service and popularity of the hotel. The management of the hotel has not been able to collect customers feedback that could have helped them to improve upon the quality of the service that can help them in the matters related to that of customer retention. The hotel has also encountered the issue related to employee retention due to the fact that they have not been able to implement proper salary hike. The working capability of the hotel staffs had also deteriorated, which is caused due to poor communication skills of the service provider. The management of the hotel is also not able to incorporate the process of digital marketing, which is common in the hospitality industry. Due to the poor technological infrastructure of the company, it is not possible to introduce online booking system. According to latest report, nearly 65% of the advance booking in Australian hospitality sector is done through online website (McManus 2013). As the Hamilton hotel is not able to introduce the latest online facility, it is not possible for the company to accept advance bookings from the foreign tourists. The hotel is mainly dependent on the bookings done through agents and other travel partners, which is not preferred by most of the visitors due to higher level of pricing. The website of the hotel is still not developed perfectly, which is not able to provide enough information about the service standard. The hotel has not been able to bring about organizational changes in quick succession that can help them to respond to the changes according to the external business environment changes. This is one of the major issues that have been encountered by the hotel that compromised upon the service quality. Recommendations for improvement on the service strategies The fast changing scenario of the hotel industry in Australia brings about new challenges in the business environment. With The fast growing demand of the hospitality industry, it is essential for the Hamilton hotel to incorporate effective service techniques. According to Goh et al., (2017), the Primary indicator of Hotel service quality is obtained from the behavior of the hotel staffs towards the guest. There are various categories of people, from all around the globe, who visit Sydney mostly for business and tourism purpose. It is important for the hotel staff to maintain same protocol of behavior and communication towards every category of guest. Due to the fact that working capability of the staff in Hamilton hotel has compromised significantly, it is essential for the hotel management to provide special training to improve the communication skills among the workers. Yu et al., (2014), have added in the context that it is important to provide regular training to the employees, which can help them to provide improve upon the working skills. The Protocol of training should be according to the new trends and changes in the hospitality sector. It is essential for the hotel to make the training regular process an important part of work schedule of every workers. Personalized form of customer service is it essential in the context of the modern day hospitality industry. This can help the hotel to provide and fulfill the needs of every group of customer, nearby ensuring high level of customer satisfaction. The personalized form of service is necessary at every level of the hotel, which will minimize the chance of any issues that are encountered by the guests. The management needs to introduce the system performance support, which ensures that there is good level of coordination between the working staffs. It is also possible to make knowledge and inform ation widely available for all the stakeholders of the hotel, which will ensure that high level of clarity is maintained within the organization. One of the major issues that are encountered by the hotel is due to the fact that they are not able to retain customers. Hence, it is essential for the company to incorporate new strategies related to development of customer relationship, which is believed to be one of the effective to retain old customers. The building of switching barriers is also one of the effective policies that can be incorporated in this context (Gummesson et al., 2014). There need to be a proper system within the hotel, where all the guests are able to provide valuable suggestions and feedback about the service quality of the hotel and the area that need to be improved. As every guests leave the hotel, they should be asked to rate the overall service quality and experience of the hotel depending upon various parameters, which will include behavior of the staff, swiftness of the service provides and overall quality of the room and food service. With the help of better level of accurate service, it is possible to quickly fulfill the needs of the customers. Modifications in the marketing plan also can be incorporated by the company to deal with the external changes in the business environment of hospitality sector. Leung et al., (2017), have mentioned about the importance of using marketing mix elements in this context that can help in the matters dealing to subject modification. In other words, it can be said that the elements of the marketing mix help to change or modify the marketing plan of a business organization depending upon the external environment of business. The hospitality service that is provided by Hamilton hotel is one of the major sources of income. The hotel also provides the food and beverage service that also needs to be modified accordingly to deal with the changes. The pricing strategy also needs to be modified accordingly, which is also one of the important criteria. It is important for the hotel to bring about changes within the pricing strategy that can help them to gain competitive advantage. However, it is als o essential to ensure that with the help of the pricing strategy that can help to maintain the high level of profit for the organization. It is also important to bring about changes within the promotional techniques, which need to be modified by incorporating Digital form of marketing. The company needs to improve upon their technological infrastructure, which can help them to incorporate e-commerce business. With the help of highly developed website, it is possible for the company to encourage advanced online booking system. The main place of operation of business of Hamilton is within the place of Sydney. However, in order to capture the opportunity of high rate of growth in hospitality sector, it is important for the hotel management to incorporate new branches in other areas in the exterior part of Sydney. Are the important part of the promotional strategies that needs to be incorporated is to initiate digital form of communication. This will enable the customers to easily communicate with the hotel staffs in order to complain about any issues. It will be also possible for the hotel staff to provide valuable inform ation to the guests, during the time of their visits (Leonidou et al., 2013). The formula for social media marketing can also be incorporated by the hotel management, which will help them to ensure better level of connectivity with the will of the society. It will also be possible for the guests to provide valuable positive feedback in the social media platforms, which can help to improve upon the reputation of the hotel. Conclusion In the concluding note, it can be said that in spite of being one of the reputed Hotel of Sydney,the Hamilton is currently facing issues due to poor service quality. The management of the hotel has also feel to bring about changes that is necessary to sustain in the hospitality sector of Australia. It is important for the hotel to bring about organizational changes at various management levels, which include changes in the marketing plan and overall service protocol. Incorporating new techniques of communication is one of the major changes that the hotel needs to incorporate. This can be incorporated to advanced level of training that is provided to the hotel workers. Changes in the marketing plan can be effective by modifying the elements of marketing mix that includes changes within the pricing strategy. These techniques will ultimately help the hotel to retain customers by establishing a healthy relationship. References Goh, E., Goh, E., Nguyen, S., Nguyen, S., Law, R. and Law, R., 2017. Marketing private hotel management schools in Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 29(4), pp.880-889. Gummesson, E., Kuusela, H. and Nrvnen, E., 2014. Reinventing marketing strategy by recasting supplier/customer roles. Journal of Service Management, 25(2), pp.228-240. Leonidou, L.C., Leonidou, C.N., Fotiadis, T.A. and Zeriti, A., 2013. Resources and capabilities as drivers of hotel environmental marketing strategy: Implications for competitive advantage and performance. Tourism Management, 35, pp.94-110. Leung, X., Bai, B. and Erdem, M., 2017. Hotel social media marketing: a study on message strategy and its effectiveness. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, (just-accepted), pp.00-00. McManus, L., 2013. Customer accounting and marketing performance measures in the hotel industry: Evidence from Australia. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, pp.140-152. Sydney Hilton, (2017).About the Hilton Sydney Hotel | Central Sydney Hotel, Australia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Oct. 2017]. Yu, Y., Byun, W.H. and Lee, T.J., 2014. Critical issues of globalisation in the international hotel industry. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(2), pp.114-118.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Contribution of Custodians and Systemic Risk

Question: Discuss about the Contribution of Custodians and Systemic Risk. Answer: Introduction: Kit is a person who was given Chilean citizenship by virtue of his birth in the country. He is working for a company originally situated in the United States. The place of his work is yet another country, Indonesia. Most of his work lies along the Indonesian coast. In spite all these facts, the place where Kit has a permanent house is in Australia. His wife and children have been living in Australia for the previous four years (Chow, 2015). The Australian taxation law considered Kit to be an Australian citizen, for which he was included within the purview of paying tax. In a bank located in Australia, Kit has an account with his wife. The salary that he gets for his job is paid by his employers to this bank account. If the rule of taxation for Australia is taken into consideration, then the above factors contribute in proving that he is entitled to pay the tax. The other factors which are relevant in this regard are some investments and settlements for a business purpose which Kit ma de in Australia. These factors clearly prove that Kit has chosen Australia as the permanent residing place for himself and his family (Chomik and Piggott, 2016). Kit takes a leave from his work after a period of three months to meet either his family in Australia or his parents who are living in his birthplace in Chile. Finally, the law of taxation applicable for Australia included him under the purview of a tax payer due to the aggregate effect of the above factors. The Australian government attaches much importance to those residing in Australia as well as paying taxes in accordance with the taxation law of that country. But the taxation department has the right to know the taxpayer's eligibility for being certain that any person is entitled to pay the tax. However, there are quite some differences between the taxation liabilities of the residents and those of the non-residents of Australia (Danon, 2010). The differences are in the following aspects: The government in Australia attaches considerable importance to the residents of the country that are entitled to pay the tax. Before it holds anyone responsible for paying the tax, this department concerned with taxation should be aware of the required eligibility for a taxpayer. Thus after the eligibility would be taken into account, there would be considerable change in how taxes by residents and non-residents will be calculated. Thus there would be a better and clearer judgment (Cortese, 2006). Payment of tax by virtue of residential proof: It is a basic fact that the income earned by any person living in a country is the basis of the calculation of tax to be paid by the government. The income from any domestic source does not affect the calculation of tax at all since it is not included in the income earned from official sources. On being a permanent resident of the country, any person will be considered liable to pay the residential tax that any Australian is considered to pay. The taxes charged by virtue of factors other than residential proof: this section of the tax is payable for every type of income that the tax payer earns. It may be income from different sources. But it should not include that from domestic sources. The official sources are considered in this case. Various taxation laws are used to charge the people of Australia the various kinds of taxes. For the case in consideration, the person is not required to pay taxes for Medicare (Donald and Nicholls, 2014). The tax that the government collects is fully supported by the citizens of the country in consideration, that is, Australia. The basis of the calculation of taxes is the entire assets owned by any person, including thee income from the salary, the properties, and various other valuable articles. The department concerned with taxation divides the tax into two portions, namely indirect and direct taxes. There are a few special features such as the compulsion to pay the tax and any increase in the amount of tax required to be paid, is given out by the Australian government. The tax required to be paid actually considered as the charge for availing the services offered by the government. The refusal by the public to pay the taxes which is a common phenomenon might result in a critical economic problem (Freebairn, 2016). The regular payment of taxes helps to fulfill the needs of the economy and ultimately adds on to the economy in the form of increased gross domestic product. This is beca use there is an all-around development of the economy due to the government's increased efforts since it makes use of the collected tax for this purpose. Thus if Kit wants the authorities to consider him as the resident of Australia, it is ideal for him to pay the taxes for which he is liable. The tax for residents is totally dependent on income from all official sources. The rates of interest charged by the banks are usual and apply to the person under consideration, that is, Kit. The persons citizenship can be subjected to verification. The taxes that are finally charged from the person depend on the following factors: If the person is finally more likely to return to the country and settle there permanently, then he would be taken as a resident of the country. Consequently, he would be taxed. On having made any investment or business negotiations in this country, hee will be considered a citizen here and would be taxable (Ingles and Stewart, 2013). If his family is permanently settled in Australia, he would be known as a citizen of this country. When a person, has gone on trips to the country with family for a duration of more than a month, the person would be rightful to have a citizenship of Australia. Doing a regular job in the country makes a person eligible for citizenship in Australia and would make him liable for paying tax. Permanent residence in Australia makes a person a citizen of the country. On having accounts in any of the banks in the country and any assets of any type will make a person liable to pay the tax. On migrating from any other country to Australia and making an effort to set up a business, a person will be treated as a citizen (Engdahl, 2011). In a nutshell, on fully living in Australia for six months or more permanently, any person would be treated as a citizen of this country. As far as kit is concerned, it is evident that he has a plan to permanently reside in Australia. The investments and business negotiations are a proof of this fact. His family is also settled permanently in the country. Thus kit is eligible for citizenship and hence has to pay the due tax in accordance with the taxation rules of the country. The tax on capital gains and that on income will be applicable in his case. Californian Copper Syndicate Ltd v Harris (Surveyor of Taxes) (1904) 5 TC 159 This case was concerned with a common occurrence related to the business and profits of the taxpayer. The company actually had the primary purpose to obtain a land area within its control which would contain copper. The coal was not extracted from the area after a certain duration of time. The court was in the opinion that the profit generation through the land would be more in future. The purpose was, after all, earning more profits through the sale of the property. The increase in returns was the final goal of the corporation or the company (Warren, 2010). Retaining the land with itself for a longer duration implied it could not be used for any other work. The company finally sold the land to another similar one and was with the expectation to get shares of the latter company in return. The land was divided into many parts and roads as well as other infrastructure were also constructed on that property, to improve the profitability by selling it. The case in consideration had the company starting the business of mining coal on the land area which was purchased by it. The coal was extracted in its entirety after a certain period of time. Having extracted the coal, the company then took the decision to sell the property. They were quite determined to their purpose, and so had an intention of selling the land area anyhow. This company also adopted the same technique as the previous one to make the land area more profitable (Heng, Niblock and Harrison, 2015). They created subdivisions and constructed several kinds of infrastructure on that land area. In the opinion of the court, the money obtained from selling the land area was not considered as profits from usual income sources, but as the benefits or advantages from capital assets. Thus the profits were regarded as being capital in nature. For this case, the entity which had to pay the tax was a company which wanted to acquire a land area which was in an undeveloped state. It was located on the beach of Whit fords. As is evident from the name, the land area was the front portion of a beach, and hence people had the right to use it. There was a group of persons who created a company for the purpose of owning the land and using it for the purpose of fishing (Taylor, 2011). After a couple of years, the problematic capital share belonging to the company was sold. The new owners purchased the land only for the reason that they would have control of the land and would increase the area by subdividing it and then sell the sites at a profit. The court gave the verdict that the land was being used for normal practical purposes to add to the return. This was a regular occurrence and could be quantified as well. Statham Anor v FC of T 89 ATC 4070 The case in consideration had a relation with income tax. The authorities concerned with determining the income tax value found that there was some incorrect assessment of the tax. The court reached the conclusion that the commissioners had made the adjustments to the income of the state. In the given case study, an individual want to make profit from the sale of a piece of land. Thus, the question arises weather the profit from the sale of land should would be considered as taxable income. This case was related to the expression of the conditions where there is the lack of profit-making purpose in the event of profit production intentions (Rodger, 2008). The court has stated that the profit from the sale of land would be used for commercial purpose. In the given case study, an organization purchase a land of sand for their own purpose and extracted sand from it. The company was expected that the price of land will increase and it will sale in future. The company want to earn profit from the sale of the land. The main issue is that weather the profit should be considered for the tax purpose. The court stated that the land would be sold for commercial purpose and tax should be paid on it. in this case study, the issue arises whether the farmer should pay the tax or not. Due to having some disputes, the farmer was offered for the land by the seller. So the land tax will be charged for the farmer (Palat, 2003). The tax should be paid on the sale of the land. As per the case mentioned above, two brothers were the owner of the land. To renovate the land they had to remove the houses placed over there. The difficulties arise during the time of the payment of tax bill regarding the land. Ultimately it is decided that according to the law of Australia the brothers don't need to pay any tax bill for the particular land (Prince, 2012). References Chomik, R. and Piggott, J. (2016). Australian Superannuation: The Current State of Play.Australian Economic Review, 49(4), pp.483-493. Cortese, C. (2006). Taxation and the Australian Superannuation System: An International Comparison.Australian Accounting Review, 16(39), pp.77-85. Chow, M. (2015).Australian master tax guide 2015. CCH Australia. Donald, M. and Nicholls, R. (2014). Bank Custodians and Systemic Risk in the Australian Superannuation System.SSRN Electronic Journal. Danon, R. (2010).Double taxation conventions. Zu?rich: Schulthess. Freebairn, J. (2008). Comment:on The Economics of Superannuation.Australian Economic Review, 19(3), pp.87-88. Engdahl, S. (2011).Taxation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press. Heng, P., Niblock, S. and Harrison, J. (2015). Retirement policy: a review of the role, characteristics, and contribution of the Australian superannuation system.Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 29(2), pp.1-17. Freebairn, J. (2016). Taxation of Housing.Australian Economic Review, 49(3), pp.307-316. Lakshmanan, J. (2015).Taxation laws. [Place of publication not identified]: Universal Law Publishing. Palat, R. (2003).Tax planning for salaried employees. Mumbai: Jaico Pub. House. Ingles, D. and Stewart, M. (2013). Superannuation Tax Concessions and the Age Pension: A Principled Approach to Savings Taxation.SSRN Electronic Journal. Prince, J. (n.d.).Tax for Australians for dummies. Rodger, A. (2008). The Economics of Superannuation.Australian Economic Review, 19(3), pp.75-86. Parker, J. (2007).Tax power for the self-employed. Naperville, Ill.: Sphinx Pub. Warren, G. (2010). Equity home bias in Australian superannuation funds.Australian Journal of Management, 35(1), pp.69-93. Taylor, S. (2011). Captured Legislators and Their Twenty Billion Dollar Annual Superannuation Cost Legacy.Australian Accounting Review, 21(3), pp.266-281.